What is a Constructor?
- A constructor is a special method (function) used to initialize the class’s instance members.
- The main goal of constructors is to assign values to the class’s data members when an object of the class is created.
- Constructors are always called when an object is created, and the init() method simulates this. It accepts the self-keyword, which refers to itself (the object), as the first argument, allowing access to the class’s attributes or methods.
class class_name: def __init__(self): # body of the constructor
If you then create an example, the constructor will be called, i.e,
class Student: # default constructor def __init__(self): self.name = "Rohan Sharma" # a method for printing data members def print_name(self): print(self.name) # creating object of the class obj = Student() # calling the instance method using the object obj obj.print_name()
Student() in the code above, we are informing python that
obj is an object of class
Student. And that is exactly when the constructor of that class is called.
More than One Constructor in a Single class:
The object of the class will always call the last constructor if the class has multiple constructors. For instance,
class Student: def __init__(self): print("The First Constructor") def __init__(self): print("The second contructor") st = Student()
The second contructor
Built-in class attributes:
There are some built-in class attributes that provide information about the class.
|__dict__||The dictionary containing details about the class namespace is made available.|
|__doc__||It contains a string that has the class documentation|
|__name__||It is used to access the class name.|
|__module__||It is used to access the module in which, this class is defined.|
|__bases__||It contains a tuple including all base classes.|
Note: also read about Python Class
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